Francione Place of Publication: Another, competing, basis is based on the theory of utilitarianism — the outright rejection of rights for all species and instead advocacy for equal consideration. This is the view espoused by Peter Singer, author of Animal Liberation. In this article, Professor Francione compares animal rights with utilitarianism, discussing the pros and cons of each I.
Rachels says that classical utilitarianism can be summed up in three propositions. These three that summarizes the idea of classical utilitarianism are: Nothing else matters and only the ones with the best consequences are the right actions. The only right actions are those which provide more happiness than unhappiness.
Instead, both are considered equal. Explain the problem with hedonism. How do defenders of utilitarianism respond to this problem? Hedonism misunderstands the nature of happiness. On the other hand, other utilitarian say have tried to bypass or ignore the question of how many things are good in themselves and saying that the only right actions are the ones with the best result.
What are the objections about justice, rights, and promises? The objection about justice is that in order to even out odds, one must bear false witness against the innocent person as it will be for the better good.
As his example stated, if he bear false witness against the innocent, the riots and lynching would stop. If you weigh that against telling the truth in order to save the innocent, bearing false witness outweighs the truth. Meanwhile the objection about rights is that actions are defensible if they produce a favourable balance of happiness over unhappiness.
In the case of the police and York, Rachels said that there may be more happiness from the pictures taken by the police officer than the unhappiness York has gained.
The object about promises is that it imposes an obligation which is hard to escape. It can be broken only with very important costs such as you have to rush someone to the hospital while it cannot be easily broken with something of light weight such as breaking your promise because you felt lazy to do so.
Distinguish between rule- and act-utilitarianism. How does rule-utilitarianism reply to the objections? Rule-utilitarianism, according to Rachels is the new version of act-utilitarianism which is the original theory.
What is the third line of defense?
The third line of defense is a small group of contemporary utilitarians who had very different response to the anti-utilitarian arguments and these arguments point out that the classical theory is at odds with ordinary notions of justice, individual rights and so on.
Is this acceptable to you or not?
For me, my moral beliefs weigh more than utilitarianism because these moral beliefs are things I have believed in for a very long time and I cannot imagine abandoning my beliefs just so that it would not conflict with utilitarianism.
A utilitarian is supposed to give moral consideration to all concerned. Who must be considered?The Elements of Moral Philosophy 7th Edition by Rachels, James, Rachels, Stuart [Paperback] [aa] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Elements of Moral PhilosophyRachels, James, Rachels, Stuart. Rachels, Ch. 8: The Debate over Utilitarianism. THREE FEATURES OF UTILITARIANISM: 1.
One: Only consequences matter a. Right acts determined solely by the goodness of the results b. What kind of act it is, the motive behind the act, and the kind of person who did the act don't matter; all that matters in determining if an act is right/wrong is its consequences.
The Elements of Moral Philosophy 7th Edition by Rachels, James, Rachels, Stuart [Paperback] [aa] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Elements of Moral PhilosophyRachels, James, Rachels. Published: Mon, 5 Dec “Should individuals, especially terminally ill-people in excruciating pain, be able to end their lives?
If so, may they hasten their deaths only be refusing medical treatment designed to sustain their lives, or may they take active measures to kill themselves? T he Elements of Moral Philosophy SEVENTH EDITION James Rachels How might utilitarianism be modified and made more sophisticated in order to be more plausible as an ethical theory?
For instance, is rule-utilitarianism better than act-utilitarianism? The elements of moral philosophy/James Rachels.—7th ed. by Stuart Rachels.
p. cm. The Elements of Moral Philosophy: AND The Right Thing to Do - Basic Readings in Moral Philosophy 3r.e. 4th Edition.